The Indonesian Basic Constitution 1945 (UUD 1945) stated that Indonesia foreign policies represented an independent and active position. It means Indonesia have a commitment to take a part in the effort of keeping world peace. Based on that, Indonesia often involved in several peace keeping missions under the United Nations (UN) command and known as Garuda Contingent.
Garuda Contingent sent for the first time in 1957 to Egypt. In the following next years, Indonesia actively sent the troops to wear blue beret in some countries. Until 2008, Indonesia has contributed more than 50 peace keeper contingents. One of the countries which became the destinations of Garuda Contingent is Lebanon in Middle East.
To support Blue Beret mission, the Government of Indonesia also sent several armoured vehicles to the theatre. Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) is a kind of vehicle which sent in the biggest number. APC is important because can carry armed personnel to do their duty; peace keeping operation.
This paper will explain about the APC which Indonesian troops needed in South Lebanon. Based on UN Resolution No 1701, Indonesia joint together with the UN peace keeper have tasks to supervise the conduct of violent ceasing and help the Government of Lebanon to protect the border area. Because of that, Indonesian personnel are needed to do some patrol operation in some areas. That is why APC become the most important vehicle for Indonesia Blue Beret.
In this paper I will explain the need, capability, context, scenario, user requirements, system requirement, and technology which needed by Indonesian military for joining UN mission in South Lebanon.
The basic purpose of this vehicle is to deploy 10 armed personnel (not include commander, gunner, and driver) safely and comfortably in a war or armed conflict environment.
The vehicle able to move forward properly in the light or dark day on the rock terrain, narrow coastal plain, mud, snow, and road in the armed conflict and can give protection for the personnel.
System of interest: Personnel
Wider system of interest: Support
Environment: Policy, conflict situation, nature condition
Wider environment: Politic, climate and weather
a. Functional Requirements
The vehicle shall use tire wheel and shall move forward up to 90 km per hour on road. In Lebanon, the distance of Logistic Base with the operation area is around 150-200 km (go and back need 300-400 km), so the vehicle shall have operational range distance more than 400 km.
The system shall move in the normal south Lebanon terrain like sand, hardened clay, rock terrain, and narrow coastal plain and also can move in slippery road, muddy, and snow covered terrain. It also shall can pass the landslide and broken road condition.
The vehicle shall equip with the weapon for defence aim, and by this weapon we can shoot the target from 150 meter. It shall have ability to deceive actors who may attack us. And the vehicle shall give maximum defence effort.
The system shall be bulletproof and able to protect the personnel inside from grenade, mortar, and mine. In the extended and exceptional situation, the APC shall warn the passenger about the propeller, chemical, biology, and nuclear weapon attack.
Besides that, it shall give proper protection for gunner and driver. When the windscreen in driving area attacked by missile and stone, the driver shall be save and keep drive the vehicle. And if the tire wheel was shot, the system shall able to move for 50 km in order to search the safer place.
The system shall have night vision tools which can facilitate patrol operation in the dark situation. And the APC shall have good radio communication.
b. Non Functional Requirements
For fulfilling the comfortable need, seat in the vehicle should be designed to be soft. Seat position for driver, passenger, and seat in turret also should be designed to be very comfort. Air conditioner should be available to make the passenger feel more comfort.
The doors vehicle should be designed in such away so the personnel can come in and come out easily.
The logistic system which supports the vehicle operation should be easy to be procured, easy maintenance, and cannot be embargoed.
For safety concern, the vehicle should equipped by safety belt for the driver. The vehicle should give minimum shock wave for the passenger when it attacked by several arm weapons such as mine, grenade, and mortar. For hiding fire, it should be equipped fire extinguisher tool. The system should have many doors to facilitate the passenger come out if the vehicle rolled over.
The vehicle should be able to take it in several conditions, so it should pass the shallow river and ditch properly.
The weight of the system when the carrier capacity is full should equal or less than 13.000 kg so it can move nimble.
a. Protection system
The APC shall use armoire anti bullet. It shall give protection against 7.62 mm bullets and mines.
This system shall use armoured glass so the driver can drive this vehicle safely without fear toward bullet attack. Observation window also shall use armoured glass so the passenger can observe outer condition safely.
Turret which is on the top of the vehicle shall be equipped with an armour shield for protecting the gunner who operate main weapon.
This panzer should give safety belt for the driver and the seat next the driver. The doors include emergency doors in left and right side should use angles 50 degree and 45 degree in order to make the personnel come in and come out easily. Emergency door should create in the up side of vehicle (roof).
For protecting the passenger, the floor and roof shall be strengthened. It is important in order to prevent the effect of land mine attack and attack from up side.
b. Mobility System
The APC shall move 90 km per hour on the road with operational range 600 kilometers. This vehicle is not use amphibious system, but it shall have fording ability at least up to one meter.
In the peace mission need more personnel to do some patrol and guard activity. So the vehicle shall carry 10 Indonesian armed personnel, 1 commander, 1 driver, and 1 gunner.
The weight of the system in empty condition shall 11.000 kg and in the full condition shall equal or less than 13.000 kg.
To keep nimble, stable, and strong when move on the several terrains in South Lebanon, the panzer shall use 6 tire wheeled.
c. Firepower System
The weapon in this vehicle is need for defence aim and not for offence. The vehicle shall use 2 kinds of weapons which are main weapon and secondary weapon. The main weapon shall have range 150 meter. The second weapon shall be grenade launcher.
The panzer shall have 8 shoot ports in order to defend, 4 ports shall be in the right side and 4 ports shall be in the left side. These wholes enable for the infantries inside to help the main weapon for defend.
d. Telecommunication System
Radio communication in the panzer shall be high-frequency electromagnetic vibration (HF) and very high-frequency electromagnetic vibration (VHF).
Vehicle with thicker armoured cannot move nimbly, therefore can be attacked more. But if the armoured is too slight, it can make the vehicle not really stable in the move. Though APC is made of armoured, nevertheless it should move nimble in conflict area. For protection and nimble movement, the monocoque body is the solution.
Monocoque body make the vehicle move nimble although have big capacity. The vehicle use armoure 10 mm in order to give protection against 7.62 mm bullets and mines. Sloping armoure until 60 degree in some sides of the vehicle body can increase the endurance up to three times.
The wheels use thick timber. Although the wheel is shot, the vehicle still can move forward up to 50 km. It was designed to have ability to move on the steep terrain with 45 degree declivity.
The floor and the roof also use armoure 10 mm. Floor also use steel square 3.5 x 40 x40 mm. But to give more protection against land mine and attack from up inside, the armoure need to be strengthened. If use thicker armoure, it can make the vehicle is heavier. To solve that problem, thicker armour is used combining by composite. Protective coating for the vehicle is made by combining armoure, ceramic aluminum, plastic, and open space.
Main machine system use independent suspension with torsion bar. Suspension system shall made to able minimizes shock wave when it moves on the hard terrain. So the torsion bar is operating with combine shock subsided tube.
The steering is using hydraulics system (hydraulic fluid is used under pressure to drive machinery. The term hydrostatic refers to the transfer of energy from flow and pressure, not from the kinetic energy of the flow). It uses automatic transmission, ZF S6HP502, 6 forward, 1 reverse. The engine is Renault MIDR 062045 inline 6 cylinder turbo-charged diesels, Behr cooling pack 320Hp, 2500 Rpm. Diesel engine is chosen because it can increase thermal efficiency and it needs simple maintenance. With 6 cylinders, fuel consumption will not be the problem.
The fuel capacity of the panzer is 200 liter. If fuel efficiency is 1 liter for 3 km, so 200 liter has cross land area ability for 600 km.
For firepower system, the vehicle uses 2 weapons. The first main armament is .50 Browning machine gun or caliber 12.7 x 99 mm. This armament fit on the top of the panzer, near with copula which able to turn up 360 degree. 12 7 x 99 mm can pierce 16 mm mild steel from 150 m. 50 Caliber Machine Gun is effective against infantry, unarmored or lightly-armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications, and low-flying aircraft.
The secondary armament is 6 x 60 mm smoke grenade launcher which operating by Automatic Grenade Launcher (AGL). Smoke grenade has function to deceive the enemy.
Panzer need radio to make command and communication become easier. This vehicle is equipped with intercom set, VHF/FM (anti jamming + hopping), master communication control, digital color terrain map, and Global Position System (GPS). And in order to support patrol activity in the night, the system equipped with night goggle vision.
The panzer which needed to support UN peace keeping mission in South Lebanon is can carry armed personnel safely and comfortably. Beside of that, the vehicle should be equipped with armaments for defence aim and radio facility to make command and communication become easier.
Panzer Anoa 6×6 Pindad is chosen to support the mission because it fulfills all basic need, and almost of user requirements and system requirements. For example, it added air conditioner, fire extinguisher tool, and pioneer tools.
In order to make the mission going better, that panzer need to equip some tools: goggle night vision, steel slink, protective coating to have maximum protection from several armed weapons, and NBC detector and protector. It also needs to equip digital color terrain map. Technology is very important to support the UN mission.
Amunition cal. 12.7 x 99 mm http://www.pindad.com/prodgul800.php?bahasa=2&varkdnews=MU127
Armoured Personnel Carrier http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armoured_personnel_carrier
Kendaraan Tempur Beroda Ban http://militerium.com/latest/kendaran-tempur-beroda-ban.html
Kontingen Garuda Temukan 41 Bahan Peledak, Kompas December 27, 2007
Pasukan Garuda XXIII-B Laksanakan Operasi Pergeseran Panser http://www.tniad.mil.id/1berita.php?pil=53&dn=20081113100038
Pindad Panser http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pindad_Panser
Panser 6×6 Pindad http://www.pindad.com/prodgul800.php?bahasa=2&varkdnews=KFK005
Sekilas Tentang Pembuatan RPP 4×4 Monocoque Body http://buletinlitbang.dephan.go.id/index.asp?mnorutisi=7&vnomor=17
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Interim_Force_in_Lebanon
Véhicule de l’Avant Blindé http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Véhicule_de_l’Avant_Blindé
Type Armoured personnel carrier
Place of origin Indonesia
Used by Indonesia
Designer PT Pindad
Manufacturer PT Pindad
Number built 150
Weight 11 tonnes, 14 tons (combat)
Length 6000 mm
Width 2500 mm
Height 2500 mm / 2900 mm (FSV variant)
Crew 3 + 10 passengers
Armor Monocoque Armoured, STANAG 4569 level 3
Primary armament 12.7 mm MG, CIS 40 AGL
Secondary armament 6 x 60mm smoke grenade launcher
Engine Renault MIDR 062045 inline 6 cylinder turbo-charged diesel, Behr cooling pack
320Hp, 2500 Rpm
Power/weight 22.85 HP/tons
Transmission Automatic, ZF S6HP502, 6 forward, 1 reverse
Suspension Independent suspension, torsion bar
Ground clearance 40 cm
Fuel capacity 200 litres
Operational range 600 km
Speed 90 km/h